Posts tagged trees

Ash trees, anthracnose and Emerald Ash Borer

Linn County Master Gardener, Claire Smith, shares the following about anthracnose and Emerald Ash Borer:

    Anthracnose – big word, hard to wrap your tongue around.  Anthracnose is a common foliage disease of shade trees in Iowa, including the ash tree.  Multiple inquiries to the Master Garden Hort-Line this morning were from folks whose ash trees were dropping leaves, an unusual occurrence in the spring.  A good guess would indicate that most of those folks were concerned that their wonderful ash tree had become infested with the Emerald Ash Borer.   Be aware that experts are seeing if the Emerald Ash Borer has invaded Iowa by crossing the river into the Northeastern portion of the state.

    A bit about each of these diseases: 

    Ash trees can be infested with anthracnose that is caused by a fungus.  There are a number of closely related fungi, but each is host specific to the tree it infects.  Often symptoms appear serious, but generally the damage caused is minimal and doesn’t seriously affect mature shade trees.  Symptoms include tan to black blotches; immature leaves becoming distorted from abnormal leaf expansion; young leaves dying and falling soon after a heavy infection.  If a severe infection does occur early in the growing season, the trees may defoliate and then a new set of leaves may emerge.  Following are some suggestions to decrease the severity of anthracnose and minimize its impact on your tree’s health:

–          Clean up and destroy fallen leaves:  use your lawn mower bagger

–          Prune the tree to remove diseased branches and properly dispose of them.

–          Prune to open the canopy for better air circulation. Fungi relish damp conditions. Pruning is generally not recommended now, but better to prune than lose the tree.

     The Emerald Ash Borer prefers Green Ash and Black Ash Trees, but will tackle any ash when the previous two mentioned have all been killed.  The borers emerge from early spring to late summer, but evidence may not be visible for up to a year.  Signs of infestation are D-shaped holes in the bark of the trunk and branches and shoots growing from the base of the tree which is the most telltale sign.  The beetle will effectively girdle the tree.  

Following are some suggestions to help reduce infestation and impact of the Emerald Ash Borer:     

–          Avoid planting ash trees

–          Learn the signs and symptoms of the Emerald Ash Borer

–          If camping, purchase firewood at or near the campsite but thoroughly inspect firewood prior to purchase

–          Do not bring extra firewood home with you.

     Maintaining a healthy environment for your trees and plants is of utmost importance.  A routine inspection of your yard and garden is necessary.  Discuss abnormalities with your local extension service, Master Gardeners, or a reputable garden center.  Pictures or actual plant samples are wonderful aids in diagnosing problems. 

REMEMBER THE LINN COUNTY MASTER GARDENER PLANT SALE THIS SATURDAY, MAY 16TH FROM 8:00 TO NOON IN THE EXTENSION OFFICE PARKING LOT AT 3279 7TH AVE. IN MARION.

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Finding the elusive morel mushroom

Blonde morels/ photo from Forest Mushrooms Inc.

Blonde morels/ photo from Forest Mushrooms Inc.

I can finally say I’ve found some morel mushrooms! Actually, I didn’t have to go on a mushroom hunt, as many Iowans do in the spring, though I’d love to find them that way. The ones I saw were spotted at a grocery store in Cedar Rapids. They were selling for $12.99 for a 3.5 ounce package and came from Forest Mushrooms Inc., of St. Joseph, Minn.

 Per their Web site: Established in 1985, Forest Mushrooms, Inc. is a Minnesota company engaged in the research, cultivation and distribution of edible specialty mushrooms. They particularly specialize in the production of oyster mushrooms, and more recently, in growing shiitake mushrooms.  Their production facilities are located in St. Joseph, MN, 90 miles northwest of Minneapolis. They distribute  mushroom products to wholesalers, supermarkets, restaurants and specialty shops. The majority of products are delivered to the Twin Cities area, but they also distribute locally and nationally. See: http://www.forestmushrooms.com/

 Here is more that Kevin Doyle, president of Forest Mushrooms, Inc., sent to me about his company and his insight into morels:  All morel mushrooms are wild-harvested, not cultivated.  There have been many attempts to grow morels, and some occasional successes but nobody has been able to repeat their successes, and thus there are no farms that currently grow morels, to the best of my knowledge.  This is because there is a very complicated and interesting relationship between the morel mushroom mycelium (which are the vegetative strands of the fungus that grow underground), and the root hairs of the trees that are host to them.  We think that the strands of morel mycelium help the tree to absorb nutrients from the soil, especially minerals, by carrying the minerals through the mycelium and then inserting the mycelium and the nutrients in to the tiny root hairs of the tree roots.  The mycelium is much much smaller than the root hairs, and wrap themselves around the root hairs and then penetrate into the root. In turn, the morels likely absorb some carbohydrate (sugars) from the vascular tissue of the tree roots, so they relationship is helpful to both organisms.  

 However, there are conditions, including but not limited to damage to the tree from fire, Dutch elm disease, wind damage, etc., that cause the morel mushroom mycelium to send strands of mycelium to the fungus where they then produce the specialized reproductive organ that we know as a mushroom.  That mushroom then produces spores which are dispersed by the wind and are carried away to start a new colony in another area of the forest, thus propagating the life of the morel fungus.  This is an adaptive response that has developed through evolution to help the fungus survive adverse situations or events.  The mushroom is just a specialized part of the fungus’ life cycle, but the main act occurs way underground for decades and helps to sustain the trees themselves, thus morel mushrooms and also many other types of mushroom fungus are essential to the health of a sustainableforest ecosystem.

 The morels in North America are widespread, though we in the Midwest often think of them as a local phenomenon.  In fact, the morel season begins much earlier in almost every other area of the country than it does in the upper Midwest, due to the milder climates and earlier onset of Spring in other regions.  In the Pacific Northwest the morel season begins in late March, and can actually continue right on into early August in the higher elevations of the Rocky Mountains.  In Minnesota, where our business is located, we are used to seeing morels during the second half of May, typically.  I would imagine in your region it is the beginning of May most commonly.

During the milder and earlier Springs we were having a few years ago, the season began a bit earlier.  The season is triggered by the combination of adequate soil moisture and enough sunny days and warm temperatures to warm up the soil adequately to spur the growth of the mushrooms.  There have been years when the moisture is there, but the temperatures are too chilly, and by the time the mushrooms come up as temperatures warm up, the grass and small plants in the forest have already sprung up and obscure the mushrooms from view, so people think there is no mushroom season, when actually we just can’t find them under the forest floor cover!

 The morels you saw are blonde-colored morels from the western slope of

Packaged mushrooms from Forest Mushrooms, Inc.

Packaged mushrooms from Forest Mushrooms, Inc.

the Rocky Mountains in Oregon.  These are the best  morels in the country at this time, for flavor, appearance, and shelf life.  They are also similar in appearance to the mushrooms that we commonly see in the Midwest.  Later in the Spring there are several other varieties that grow in abundance in the Pacific Northwest, including “fire morels” (also called “burns”), which grow in huge numbers on the sites of last season’s forest fires.  These burn morels are smaller, not as thick, and have a conical shape.  Another morel commonly harvested commercially in the mountains is simply called a “natural” and is shaped more like a golf-ball, without the conical shape and more rounded, with a thicker shell.  (All true morels are hollow inside.)  The latest morelspecies to fruit in the Rockies is called the “grey morel” and can also grow on fire sites.  It is the largest morel in the country, grey in color, thick walled, and has a great shelf life for transport to market.  All of these morels are also dried, often on-site, or in large gas-fired driers, for preservation and enjoyment in the off-months.

 Forest Mushrooms flies in morels, as well as many other wild-harvested mushrooms, every few days all year around.  We inspect and sort them, and then market them to both the foodservice and grocery store markets.  We are licensed as “Wild Mushroom Experts” by the State of Minnesota, which is required for the commercial handling and sale of wild-harvested mushrooms.  Any establishment  in Minnesota that sells wild-harvested mushrooms of any type, including morels, to the public, needs to be able to show that they were obtained through a state-licensed Wild Mushroom Expert.

I do not know whether Iowa has any such requirement, since this varies from state to state.  But it does provide a measure of food safety and confidence for chains when they chose to carry these products.

 FYI, Forest Mushrooms, Inc. has been in operation since 1985, and we specialize in growing oyster and shiitake mushrooms (about 3000 lbs/wk,  all year aound) and in distributing all other specialty mushrooms, fresh, dried and frozen, both cultivated and wild-harvested.  We also have a full line of organic fresh mushrooms for both foodservice and grocery customers.  We do NOT sell to the public directly, but are strictly growers and wholesale suppliers.

Back to Cindy:

The annual Czech Village Houby Days celebrates the mushroom (houby is the Czech word for mushroom) and I’ve heard they might go back to using morels in their breakfast!! About half of the businesses in Czech Village have returned since the flood and more are hoping to come back in time for the celebration on May 15-17. Below is a photo of Jan Stoffer, of the National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library, giving a tour of Czech Village to students from McKinley Middle School last month.

Jan Stoffer leads tour of Czech Village for McKinley students.

Jan Stoffer leads tour of Czech Village for McKinley students.

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Emerald ash borer alert – new infestation found just miles from Iowa in Wisconsin

This came out today from the Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship. Spokesman Dustin Vande Hoef said the emerald ash borer infestation discovered in Wisconsin – the closest its ever been to Iowa – appeared to be well-established. The best action Iowans can take to prevent an infestation – which most experts believe is only a matter of time – is to buy firewood locally and not bring it into the state from quarantined areas such as Michigan, where the emerald ash borer was first discovered in the United States and where the beetle has already decimated ash trees.

Here is the press release that came out today:

Emerald Ash Borer

Emerald Ash Borer

IOWA OFFICIALS HIGHLIGHT EFFORTS TO PREVENT AND DETECT EMERALD ASH BORER FOLLOWING NEW DISCOVERY IN WISCONSIN

New Infestation Discovered Across Mississippi River in Wisconsin

 

DES MOINES – Following the discovery of Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) just across the Mississippi River from the Iowa-Wisconsin border, members of the Iowa Emerald Ash Borer Team today highlighted steps being taken to prevent an infestation in Iowa and detect the beetle if it is in the state.  EAB is an invasive beetle that feeds on ash trees and eventually kills them.

 

The new infestation was found near Victory, Wis. on the east bank of the Mississippi River across from Allamakee County in Northeast Iowa. This new infestation is less than 5 miles southeast of the Minnesota-Iowa border.

 

The Iowa Emerald Ash Borer Team includes officials from the Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship, Iowa State University Extension and the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, USDA Animal Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and the USDA Forest Service

 

The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is native to the Orient, and was introduced in the United States near Detroit, Mich. in the 1990s.  Although not yet found in Iowa, EAB has more potential for future harm to Iowa forests and urban communities than any other insect currently being dealt with in the United States.

 

EAB kills all ash (Fraxinus) species by larval burrowing under the bark and eating the actively growing (cambium) layers of the trees. EAB has been killing trees of various sizes in neighborhoods and woodlands. Ash is one of the most abundant native tree species in North America, and has been heavily planted as a landscape tree in yards and other urban areas. According to recent sources, Iowa has an estimated 58 million rural ash trees and approximately 30 more million urban ash trees.

 

The movement of out-of-state firewood to and through Iowa poses the greatest threat to spread EAB.  Areas currently infested are under federal and state quarantines, but unknowing campers or others who transport firewood can spark an outbreak.

 

Each member of the Iowa Emerald Ash Borer Team is taking steps to monitor Iowa’s ash trees and ensure that the beetle has not spread into Iowa by examining high risk sites.  The Iowa EAB team has defined high risk sites as locations where people would bring out-of state wood, such as campgrounds, nurseries and sawmills.

 

DNR estimates there are up to as many as 5 million ash trees in Allamakee County, this represents about 5% of the trees in the forested areas of this county.  Allamakee is the most forested county in Iowa with 42% of the land covered by trees (176,000 acres of forest).  Iowa agencies in cooperation with USDA-APHIS and Forest Service will be working together to survey for EAB.

 

Monitoring efforts include visual surveys at high risk sites by Iowa State University, DNR’s placement of sentinel ash trees that are intentionally stressed so that they are more attractive to EAB, and the placement of purple sticky traps around the state that attracts and traps the insect by a collaborative effort among APHIS and the Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship.

 

Team members will be working with Wisconsin and Minnesota officials in response to this new discovery and will be conducting additional visual surveys in the area in the coming weeks.

 

To learn more about EAB and other pests that are threatening Iowa’s tree population please visit www.IowaTreePests.com.

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Another snowstorm? Look here for spring

As Iowa braces for what could be another spring snowstorm this weekend, Deb Engmark, head gardener at Brucemore in Cedar Rapids, sent the following observations and photos from the historic Brucemore estate:

From the Brucemore Gardens

 

It would have been a glorious first snow fall of the season had the snow fallen sometime between November 27th and December 30th. With four to six

 inches on the ground, my week of vacation coming to an end, and not nearly enough yard work finished, it sure made Sunday hard to take. On the bright side, on Monday morning the little bit of green that was evident in the landscape at the end of last week was much more abundant and vibrant. I also noticed the swelling of the buds on many of the shrubs and some of the trees here at Brucemore have expanded close to the point of explosion. Many buds have popped and the leaves are extended toward the sun.

 

 The honeysuckle bushes along Linden Drive opened sometime between 8:00 a.m. and 12:30p.m.on Monday, as did the first scillas on the property, revealing the sweet essence of  spring along with the reliable blues many visitors associate with older neighborhoods. The snowdrops are always an early sign of winters waning. Shining in the woods for a few weeks already and now many of the white nodding heads have opened to reveal the upside down v-shape of green marking the inside bell and if you are able to get close enough, it too carries a fresh scent of spring.   

 

Out in the formal garden the crocus are blooming and other bulbs are making their presence known as are some of the undesirables dandelions, violas and the creeping charlie seem to have survived the winter just fine, lucky us.

 

Now, before spring has totally sprung, is a great time to take notice of that which is often overlooked – trees. We are fortunate here at Brucemore to have a few grand specimens to appreciate. Across the road from the formal garden, west of the old greenhouse is a mature red maple and a stately old red oak.  Roger Johnson, our building and grounds superintendent, believes they are some of the oldest trees on the property. He estimates that they are well over 100 years old due to their height, trunk diameter, and the texture of the bark.  Oaks are slow growing, long-lived, and require a century to mature, and will often live undisturbed for two to three centuries or more. The red maple upon maturity develops a unique bark texture. Flat gray ridges like fins begin to wave and flake while spiraling up to the multitude of branches. A bit of the oaks’ structural supremacy and the mature maples textured bark is softened after the emergence of the leaf canopy in spring.

 

As I finish this typing Tuesday afternoon, the landscape has changed once again adding more colors, hues and tones in every passing moment.

 

I would love to hear what you are doing also!  Please feel free to send me any suggestions, ideas, or tips from your own gardens and explorations.

 

 

Deb Engmark                            

Brucemore Head Gardener                     

2160 Linden Dr. SE

Cedar Rapids, Iowa 52403

deb@brucemore.org

www.brucemore.org

 

 

Blue scilla

Blue scilla

 

Snowdrops at Brucemore

Snowdrops at Brucemore

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Spring tree care

The following is by Linn County Master Gardener, Claire Smith:

 

    March marked the start of our transition from winter to spring.  Now that the snow has melted  (we hope,)  it’s a good time to examine your trees for winter damage.  We often expect our trees to be self sufficient and  tend to neglect their well-being.  

     After the frost is gone, thoroughly water trees that have been subjected to de-icing compounds.  This will move the chemicals through the soil and away from the tree roots.   Watering before the ground thaws will create runoff and pollute soil and ground water. 

     If your trees need to be fertilized, wait until the ground has completely thawed.  Fertilizer run off wastes money and also contributes to groundwater pollution.

     If, and only if, an insect problem exists, dormant oil sprays can be used once the temperature reaches a constant 40 degrees.  Dormant oils are used to control some scale insects and overwintering insects. 

    Rabbits and voles girdle trunks at the base.  Damage will appear as a lighter area on the trunk, primarily as teeth marks.   The damage interrupts the flow of water and nutrients to the roots.   While you have no recourse for the damage, it is wise to monitor the health of the tree as severe damage can kill a tree.

    Tree wraps should be removed in the spring as the temperature warms.

    Complete pruning prior to trees leafing out.  Storm damaged branches should be removed as they occur. 

    If you’re planning on adding trees to your landscape, now is a good time to visit our local nurseries and greenhouses for suggestions and recommendations.        Personally, I’m going to find the shadiest spot under the big walnut to plant my chair and enjoy my favorite summer beverage.

 

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Technically, it’s still winter

Several warm and sunny days this week might make us forget that winter is still with us, officially, at least, until Friday. Deb Engmark, head gardener at the historic Brucemore estate in Cedar Rapids, sent the following about this time of year:

Brucemore estate in Cedar Rapids, Iowa

Brucemore estate in Cedar Rapids, Iowa

  

 

 

 

   From the Brucemore Gardens

 

   The lengthening of the days and the warmer temperatures make me want to go outside and get back to gardening along with the rest of the grounds crew here at Brucemore. We have pruned all the deciduous trees and grape vines. The lawns and garden beds have been raked and the orchard will be pruned this week. While failing to pull the greenery used for holiday decorating out of a still frozen container, a somber realization dawned on me: it is still winter and there is a good month left before the real gardening can begin, and before we know it, the whole growing season will have passed by in a blur of continuous activity.

 

In my haste to hurry up and get busy, I realized that I had almost missed it again—the experience, the wondrous process of late winter merging into spring. With every rain drop and ray of sunshine, change is taking place. We all know this but rarely take the time to observe and enjoy. This year I vow to observe and enjoy with total presence, and I will stay conscious and aware during every season and transition of the year. Through Cindy’s blog, (thank you Cindy) I will share my experiences and offer tips and ideas for you to use in your own gardens.

 

I encourage you and yours to participate wholeheartedly also. Come visit the Brucemore gardens and grounds to experience the seasons this year. Our gates are open during regular business hours, 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. and often from dawn to dusk. Stroll the grounds, formal gardens, pond, timber, and orchard. Stop by the children’s garden to pick up a monthly activity sheet, which offers suggestions for additional nature study opportunities.

 

I would love to hear what you are doing also!  Please feel free to send me any suggestions, ideas, or tips from your own gardens and explorations.

 

Deb Engmark

Brucemore Head Gardener

2160 Linden Dr. SE

Cedar Rapids, Iowa 52403

deb@brucemore.org

www.brucemore.org

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WMT Lawn, Garden & Home Show and “daylily delights”

Linn County Master Gardener, Claire Smith, offered the following on upcoming events this week (March 2009) –  the WMT Lawn, Garden and Home show and a presentation on daylilies:

 

     Not your humdrum educational series, here are four exciting gardening presentations available in mid-March.  The timing is perfect as now is the time to get motivated for outside endeavors.

     Daylily Delights is the title of Zora Ronan, Linn County Master Gardener and daylily grower extraordinaire’s presentation on the art of selecting and growing daylilies on Wednesday, March 11th from 6:30-8:30 p.m., at the Linn County Extension Office Conference Room, Suite 140, 3279 7th Ave., Marion.  Zora will first focus on criteria for judging or picking the perfect Daylilies.  The second part of her lecture will be devoted to All the Pretty Faces-Forms and Colors.  Zora has an extensive daylily garden at her home and plans to have a garden walk in mid-July.  This class is FREE and open to the public.  Registration is requested.  Call the Extension Office at 319-377-9839.

      Linn County Master Gardeners will be staffing a booth Saturday and Sunday, March 14th and 15th at the 2009 WMT and Mix 96.5 Lawn, Garden and Home Show at Hawkeye Downs, Cedar Rapids.  Horticulture information, composting advice and ISU publications will be available.  Additionally, Master Gardeners will offer the following three lectures:

·          New and Unusual Annuals and Perennials for 2009 is presenter Deb Walser’s lecture about adding spice to your gardens.  Annual and perennial gardens are not just Geraniums, Daylilies and Hosta.  Mix it up by adding unusual annuals and perennials in the same bed.  Deb will introduce some of the most unusual annuals and perennials that will be in the nurseries near you this year.  You will be surprised by some of the same, but in a new way.    Come and get new ideas for this spring and add some spunk to your garden on Saturday at 11:30 a.m.

·         At 2:30 on Saturday, Becki Lynch will let you know why Ornamental Grasses have become the hot plant in the past five years. Becki will provide design tips to place these four season interest plants on your property, from large to small and sun to shade.

·         Gene Frye will discuss selecting trees and shrubs for Iowa.  He will discuss the why, when and how to maintain woody plants and recommend tools to use on Sunday at 1:00 p.m. 

 

 

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