Posts tagged foliage

Ash trees, anthracnose and Emerald Ash Borer

Linn County Master Gardener, Claire Smith, shares the following about anthracnose and Emerald Ash Borer:

    Anthracnose – big word, hard to wrap your tongue around.  Anthracnose is a common foliage disease of shade trees in Iowa, including the ash tree.  Multiple inquiries to the Master Garden Hort-Line this morning were from folks whose ash trees were dropping leaves, an unusual occurrence in the spring.  A good guess would indicate that most of those folks were concerned that their wonderful ash tree had become infested with the Emerald Ash Borer.   Be aware that experts are seeing if the Emerald Ash Borer has invaded Iowa by crossing the river into the Northeastern portion of the state.

    A bit about each of these diseases: 

    Ash trees can be infested with anthracnose that is caused by a fungus.  There are a number of closely related fungi, but each is host specific to the tree it infects.  Often symptoms appear serious, but generally the damage caused is minimal and doesn’t seriously affect mature shade trees.  Symptoms include tan to black blotches; immature leaves becoming distorted from abnormal leaf expansion; young leaves dying and falling soon after a heavy infection.  If a severe infection does occur early in the growing season, the trees may defoliate and then a new set of leaves may emerge.  Following are some suggestions to decrease the severity of anthracnose and minimize its impact on your tree’s health:

–          Clean up and destroy fallen leaves:  use your lawn mower bagger

–          Prune the tree to remove diseased branches and properly dispose of them.

–          Prune to open the canopy for better air circulation. Fungi relish damp conditions. Pruning is generally not recommended now, but better to prune than lose the tree.

     The Emerald Ash Borer prefers Green Ash and Black Ash Trees, but will tackle any ash when the previous two mentioned have all been killed.  The borers emerge from early spring to late summer, but evidence may not be visible for up to a year.  Signs of infestation are D-shaped holes in the bark of the trunk and branches and shoots growing from the base of the tree which is the most telltale sign.  The beetle will effectively girdle the tree.  

Following are some suggestions to help reduce infestation and impact of the Emerald Ash Borer:     

–          Avoid planting ash trees

–          Learn the signs and symptoms of the Emerald Ash Borer

–          If camping, purchase firewood at or near the campsite but thoroughly inspect firewood prior to purchase

–          Do not bring extra firewood home with you.

     Maintaining a healthy environment for your trees and plants is of utmost importance.  A routine inspection of your yard and garden is necessary.  Discuss abnormalities with your local extension service, Master Gardeners, or a reputable garden center.  Pictures or actual plant samples are wonderful aids in diagnosing problems. 

REMEMBER THE LINN COUNTY MASTER GARDENER PLANT SALE THIS SATURDAY, MAY 16TH FROM 8:00 TO NOON IN THE EXTENSION OFFICE PARKING LOT AT 3279 7TH AVE. IN MARION.

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Centipedes, millipedes and more Japanese beetles

 

 

Master Gardener Intern, Sue Levasseur, answers two questions frequently asked of the Hortline:

 

            Q.  How can I get rid of those metallic-green bugs that are eating my plants?

The Japanese beetle has become a significant pest in Iowa during the past decade.  The head and thorax are shiny metallic-green, and the wing covers are coppery red. A row of five tufts of white hairs grow on each side of the abdomen.

            Japanese beetles are a double threat insect in the home garden.  In the larvae stage they are white C-shaped grubs that are approximately 1¼” long when fully mature.  They inhabit the soil from August until June where they feed on turf grass roots and organic matter.  Adult beetles emerge in June and eat the foliage and flowers of over 300 plants.  Foliage is consumed by eating the tissue between the veins, a type of feeding called skeletonizing.

            Control of adult beetles is difficult because they emerge every day for a period of several weeks.  Handpicking or screening of high-value plants may be of benefit in isolated situations with limited numbers of beetles.  Spot spraying infested foliage of high value plants with carbaryl (Sevin), permethrin (Eight) or cyfluthrin (Tempo) may reduce damage for several days but multiple applications are required to maintain control.  Spraying the adult stage is not an effective strategy for prevention of white grubs.  Use of floral lure and sex attractant traps is not recommended; research suggests that they are not effective in controlling moderate to heavy infestations and they may attract more beetles into a yard than would occur otherwise.  However, the traps may reduce damage and beetle populations where landscapes are isolated from other Japanese beetle breeding areas or when mass trapping (everyone in the neighborhood) is used.  

            Q.  What is the difference between centipedes and millipedes and how can I get rid of them in my house?

            House centipedes are approximately 1½” long with 15 pairs of long, threadlike legs extending from their body segments (one pair per segment). In contrast, millipedes are about 1¼” long and have 30 pairs of short legs extending from their body segments (two pair of legs per segment). 

            House centipedes are found both indoors and outdoors, but prefer living in damp portions of basements, bathrooms, and unexcavated areas under the house.  They feed on small insects, insect larvae and spiders.  Thus they are beneficial and considered harmless to people but most homeowners consider them a nuisance.

            To deter centipedes from your home dry up and clean the areas that serve as habitat and food source for centipedes as much as you can.  Residual insecticides can be applied to usual hiding places such as crawl spaces, dark corners in basements, baseboard cracks, openings in concrete slabs, under shelves and around stored boxes.

            Millipedes are usually found outdoors where they feed on decaying vegetable matter.  They are one of nature’s harmless “recyclers”.  Millipedes are accidental invaders in the house.  Capture and discard the offending invader.

Gardening Questions?  Call the Linn County Master Gardener Horticulture Line @ 319-447-0647.

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Beetle Battle II – Japanese beetle invasion

 

     I don’t hide my disdain for the Colorado potato beetles that annually devour my potato crop, but come July, I’m battling a much more formidable foe.

    The deceptively handsome, copper-colored Japanese beetles are out in force, their voracious appetites turning foliage to lace throughout my backyard.

    As obnoxious as they are, potato beetles are at least slower moving, and thus easier to squish than the wily Japanese beetle.

    Japanese beetles have perfected the art of stop, drop and roll, and if that fails, while I’m reaching in for the death kill, they simply fly away.

    Their favorite meals appear to be grapes, hollyhocks, roses and – where we do most of our battle – raspberry bushes.

    Armed with a single gardening glove and a container for whatever raspberries they haven’t devoured, I make a trek to the bushes every evening after work.

    Early evening seems to be the time when they are less likely to fly off and are an easier target for my gloved hand.

    When one or two started appearing on the bushes in late June, this “squish” technique seemed to work, but by now, several of the beetles gather on each leaf and it’s time to move on to bigger things.

    Because raspberry patches should be a place where you or a child can readily eat whatever’s ripe, as-is, I wouldn’t use any chemical means of control. The best approach has so far been to take a small bucket of soapy water  to the bushes – I use liquid dish soap – and knock the beetles into the water.

    Plain water doesn’t quite do the trick, as the beetles can survive, swimming around, for at least several days in it.

    I’ve heard bug experts say Japanese beetles usually don’t kill anything before they end their midsummer’s rampage, but I don’t know that they’ve seen the infestation problem that my backyard seems to have.  Once the beetles ravage their favorite plants, they will move on to almost any others available. They even suck the flowers of my fragrant milkweed to nothing.

    I’m envious of the parts of the country where these beetles have not yet reached. Even areas of Cedar Rapids seem immune to the problem. If you’ve had any luck with other methods of control, please let me know.

 

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